Its scope narrowed over the years, and texts written in this mode were increasingly concerned with emphasizing their status as language games divorced from the real. Postwar poetry New currents in the novel and the theatre were easier to define than those in poetry, where the lack of a broad readership was, in itself, an encouragement to fragmentation.
In place of these conventions, the writers offer texts that demand more of the reader, who is presented with compressed, repetitive, or only partially explained events from which to read a meaning that will not, in any case, be definitive.
The term New Criticism not to be confused with the Anglo-American New Criticismdeveloped after World War Iwhose proponents were associated with the maintenance of conservative perspectives and structures covers a wide range of very different practices and practitioners, from Georges Poulet and Jean-Pierre Richard to the Marxists Lucien Goldmann and Pierre Macherey and, later, Philippe Sollers and Julia Kristeva.
In regard to these innovations, the journal Tel Quel was particularly instrumental. Their new modes of reading, which challenged the conservative traditions embedded in the universities, contributed to the build-up of a wider demand for radical change.
Sartre The war transformed the literary scene, eclipsing some writers and lending prestige—for the time being, at least—to those who had made the right moral and political choices. Founded in by Philippe Sollers and other writers, Tel Quel reflects the transformation and politicization of Parisian and international intellectual modes in that decade.
Moderato Cantabile favours innovative stylistic structuring over conventional characterization and plot, her purpose not to tell a story but to use the play of form to represent the movements of desire—complex, ambiguousand disruptive. A An analysis of the dramatic devices in antigone by anouilh generation, from the late s, was more open to fantasy and the imagination but impatient of formal discipline.
Beauvoir The conflicts submerged in the euphoria of liberation surfaced during the Cold War and were intensified by the colonial wars of the s. Blin is notable for his early presentation of plays by Beckett, Genet, and other important dramatists.
Some writers escaped the country to spend the remaining years of the war in the safety of exile or with the Free French Forces. The educational system was itself rigid and outdated; a liberal university admissions policy was combined with a teaching method based largely on formal lectures, and the vast student body was without any say in the running of a system that seemed to be largely irrelevant to its needs.
Lacan proved to be a major influence on avant-garde French feminism, and he led Freudian thought in fresh directions through his work on the part played by language and unconscious desire in the formation of a human subject that must always be seen as open, incomplete, and in process.
The nouveau roman was taken up by the literary theorist Jean Ricardou and promulgated by him through the avant-garde critical journal Tel Quel. Marguerite Duras Marguerite Donnadieu is sometimes added to the list, though not with her approval.
Several writers joined the military, as well as the intellectualresistance. The confrontation was symptomatic. This was an outstanding moment for the French stage. Structuralismbased on the analytic methods of the linguistic theorist Ferdinand de Saussureproposed that phenomena be considered not in themselves but in terms of their working relationship to the organized structures within which they exist.
The most significant developments in literature seemed to be outside the field of imaginative literature, though more often than not they drew for their inspiration and power on the radical writings of recent generations, and they themselves quickly engendered literary innovations. Jean Cocteau and Jean Giono were among this last group and later were criticized for their conduct.
The posthumous publication in the s of their letters and diaries from the war years later brought the relationship between the couple, and their relationships with others, into more-complex and sometimes surprising perspectives.
The nouveau roman French: The German attack on the Soviet Union in was decisive for the French Communist Partywhich was to gain considerably through its organized opposition to fascism.
The work and the theories of Jarry, Cocteau, and Artaud now began to bear their fruit. Meanwhile, the Occupation brought prestige and an attentive audience to writers who upheld the honour of their defeated country.
Michel Foucault has perhaps been even more influential than Lacan, his studies carrying into the context of public and private life his explorations of the relations of power to forms of knowing.
Others, faithful to political options made during the previous decade, moved directly into collaboration. Antigone] are lucid, classical moralitiesshowing that there is a price to be paid for loyalty to people and beliefs.
Le Plaisir du texte ; The Pleasure of the Text pursued the concept of the subversive pleasure of reading. Afterexistentialismdepicting humanity alone in a godless universe, provided intellectual scaffolding for this view of individuals as free to determine themselves through such choices.
Their antecedents as diverse as the fool of Shakespearean drama and the tramp of silent comedy, Vladimir and Estragon are locked together in lyrical, violent, and trivial exchanges that model the devastating absurdity of latter-day Western humanism in a highly stylized dramatic form that brings together musical compositionhigh tragedy, pantomime, and knockabout farce.
In the mids, however, critical attention was focused on the group dubbed the nouveaux romanciers, or new novelists: The latter offers readings of the icons of contemporary culture and has become a basic text in the academic discipline known as cultural studies.French literature - The midth century: France’s defeat by German troops in and the resultant division of the country were experienced as a national humiliation, and all French citizens were confronted with an unavoidable choice.
Some writers escaped the country to spend the remaining years of the war in the safety of exile or with the Free French Forces. Balls of Fury/Walk Hard/Talladega Nights A Syllabus of a Course in Elementary Physics (), Frederick E Sears Packaging in France - Strategic Forecasts to Darkling, Yasmine Galenorn, Cassandra Campbell Financial and Managerial Accounting, Jocelyn.
Course Summary This ''Antigone'' Study Guide is a simple way to master comprehension of the play ''Antigone'' so you can succeed on an upcoming exam or class discussion.Download